Oral Cooperative Group Work:

1. Numbered Heads Together

2. Paraphrase Passport:

A reading, listening and speaking activity used to increase comprehension

Purpose: Paraphrase Passport provides a structure for reading, processing
and restating written text.

Skills Addressed:
1. Focused Reading-Students have a clear purpose for reading.
2. Oral Fluency-Students read several passages of text aloud.
3. Synthesizing-Students think about what they are reading by making
inferences, generalizations and drawing conclusions about the text.
4. Paraphrasing-Students restate text passages expressing the meaning
in their own words.
5. Focused Listening-Students listen actively to a partner as the partner
restates passages of text.

Steps Involved:
1. Teacher selects a piece of text and divides the text into “manageable”
sections or paragraphs.
2. Students are placed into partnerships (A & B).
3. Teacher distributes a copy of the text to each student.
4. Partners sit, in chairs, “shoulder to shoulder”, facing opposite
5. Both partners look at their copy of the text. Partner A reads the
first paragraph aloud as Partner B reads along silently.
6. Partner B paraphrases what they heard Partner A read.
Example: “What I think I heard you saying is that...”
7. Partners exchange roles. Partner B reads the second paragraph aloud
as Partner A reads along silently.
8. Partner A paraphrases what they heard Partner B read.
9. The process continues until the entire piece has been read.
10. Teacher engages the whole class in a “Grand Conversation” about the
 What connections to the text did you make? (Text-to-Self, Text-to-Text, Text-to-
 What conclusions did you draw from the piece? (Author’s Point of View)
 What insights do you now have?
 What you now like to study as a result of the reading the piece?

3. Think-Pair-Share

*a cooperative and structured discussion strategy

4. Clock Buddiesimages-14.jpeg

*a quick partnering system

Comprehension Check-In:

Three-Minute Pause
*a structured pause; a comprehension check


RAFT Papers
*a framework for approaching writing that can be especially good for encouraging expressions of empathy and understanding of another's perspective
Interactive writing

Shared writing


Semantic Feature Analysis
an attribute analysis tool; students can compare different ideas, concepts, people, events, etc. against a cross-referenced set of criteria
Comparison-Contrast Charts
*often found in graphic organizer form, a chart for comparing two concepts by looking at the ways they are similar and how they are different

Reading Comprehension:

Reciprocal Reading
*a constructed activity for students to collaborate in understanding a selection of content (can also be done individually); students take on roles as Summarizer, Questioner, Clarifier, or Predictor
Power Thinking
*an alternative system of outlining, power thinking involves assigning "Power" levels to information according to whether it is a main idea, subtopic, or detail
History Frames/Story Maps
*based on the story maps that many students already use in English and Language Arts, the history frame is a graphic organizer that looks at key actors, time & place of events, problem or goal, key events, outcome, and larger relevance
QRA- Question Response Answer
Problem-Solution Chart
*a two-column chart that is especially helpful for looking at cause and effect; its components invite students to consider consequences, causes, and solutions of problems
Question-Answer Relationships
*an strategy for understanding different levels of questions, from simple recall to more complex, and for recognizing the nature of given questions so that it is better understood what kind of answer is called for
Questioning the Author
*a protocol of questions for examining how clearly an author has communicated his or her ideas
Pattern Puzzles (a/k/a Mystery Pot)
*a sorting and manipulation activity for looking at the organization of ideas

Building Background/Preview:

ABC Brainstorm
*brainstorming activity, using letters of the alphabet
Carousel Brainstorming
brainstorm similar to graffiti strategy
K - W - L
*a three-column chart for approaching new content and actively engaging in it; contains components for before, during, and after reading activity
Column Notes
a learning guide arranged in columns


Inquiry Chart
*a variation of column notes and learning guides, inquiry charts are used specifically to generate questions whose answers will come from combing through a variety of sources

*a two-column chart where students seek to provide support or evidence from the content to bolster an opinion they have put forward

*a variation of two-column charts where students use key ideas in their content to support a thesis; excellent for pre-writing

Selective Underlining/Highlighting
*emphasis on the word "selective"; a means for students to read for key ideas, essential vocabulary, cause and effect, etc.


3 - 2 - 1
*good quick strategy for summarizing and questioning
Venn Diagrams
*the most common charts for looking at similarities and differences
Sum It UP
*a strategy for developing coherent but brief expressions of larger ideas by focusing on key words and main ideas; included are suggestions for various ways to teach summarizing, including an activity called Sum It Up


Word Map
*a vocabulary strategy for visually mapping associations of meaning for a new term
Concept of Definition Map
*a visually organized word chart for expanding the concept of meaning and enriching one's understanding of an unfamiliar term